端午节的由来/The Origin of Dragon Boat Festival —— 纪念伟大的浪漫主义爱国诗人屈原

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农历五月初五是中国的端午节,端午节这天人们划龙舟,吃粽子。据说端午节是为了纪念一位伟大的诗人屈原。

Nónglì wǔ yuèchū wǔ shì zhōngguó de duānwǔ jié, duānwǔ jié zhè tiān rénmen huà lóngzhōu, chī zòngzi. Jùshuō duānwǔ jié shì wèile jìniàn yī wèi wěidà de shīrén qūyuán.

 

屈原是中国浪漫主义文学的开拓者,屈原的作品想象最为丰富,词采十分瑰丽,充满了积极的浪漫主义精神,他将对理想的热烈追求融入了艺术的想象和神奇的意境之中。他写人神之恋,写狂怪之士,写远古历史传说,写与天神鬼怪游观,而一切神都具有民间普通的人性……也许是屈原才华过高,为人太清高正直,他屡屡被小人构陷,颠沛流离,最终投江殉国。

Qūyuán shì zhōngguó làngmàn zhǔyì wénxué de kāità zhě, qūyuán de zuòpǐn xiǎngxiàng zuìwéi fēngfù, cí cǎi shífēn guīlì, chōngmǎnle jījí de làngmàn zhǔyì jīngshén, tā jiāng duì lǐxiǎng de rèliè zhuīqiú róngrùle yìshù de xiǎngxiàng hé shénqí de yìjìng zhī zhōng. Tā xiě rén shén zhī liàn, xiě kuáng guài zhī shì, xiě yuǎngǔ lìshǐ chuánshuō, xiě yǔ tiānshén guǐguài yóu guān, ér yīqiè shén dōu jùyǒu mínjiān pǔtōng de rénxìng…… Yěxǔ shì qūyuán cáihuáguò gāo, wéirén tài qīnggāo zhèngzhí, tā lǚlǚ bèi xiǎo rén gòuxiàn, diānpèi liúlí, zuìzhōng tóu jiāng xùnguó.

 

内容

 

战国时期七个诸侯国争霸,秦国最强

During the Warring States Period, the seven kingdoms fought for hegemony and Qin was the strongest  

 

楚国的贵族屈原很有才华

Qu Yuan, the nobleman of Chu kingdom, was very talented

 

他26岁就成为了楚国大臣

He became minister of Chu at 26 years old

 

屈原主张联合其他诸侯国抵抗秦国

Qu Yuan advocated uniting other states against Qin

 

楚国成为了六国领袖

Chu became the leader of the six states

 

而屈原也受到楚怀王重用

Qu Yuan was also appreciated by King Huai

 

公子子兰等非常嫉恨屈原

Gongzi Zilan and others envied and hated Qu Yuan

 

他们经常在怀王面前诽谤屈原

They often defamed Qu Yuan in front of the King Huai 

 

怀王信以为真逐渐疏远屈原

The King Huai belived them and gradually alienated Qu Yuan

 

不久后秦国派张仪出使楚国

Not long after Qin sent Zhang Yi to Chu

 

在子兰引荐下张仪见到楚国王后郑袖

Introduced by Zi Lan, Zhang yi visited Queen Chu Zheng Xiu

 

张仪送给郑袖一对价值连城的白壁

Zhang Yi gave Zheng Xiu a pair of priceless white jade

 

之后张仪拜见了怀王

Then Zhang Yi visited the King Huai

 

张仪让楚国和其他诸侯国断绝关系

Zhang Yi asked Chu state cut off relations with other states

 

许诺秦国将赠送给楚国六百里地

Promised Qin will give away 600 miles land to Chu

 

正当怀王犹豫之际

When the King Huai hesitated

 

郑袖却认为什么都不做楚国就将得到六百里地

But Zheng thought Chu would get 600 miles for free

 

在招待张仪的宴席上

At the banquet for Zhang Yi

 

屈原劝怀王不能轻信秦国

Qu Yuan advised the King Huai not to trust Qin

 

怀王大怒下罢免了屈原

The King Huai deposed Qu Yuan with great anger

 

在忧愤中屈原写下 ‘离骚’

Qu Yuan wrote “Li Sao” in his indignation

 

‘离骚’是遭遇忧患的意思

Li Sao means Difficulties encountered

 

屈原将自己对楚国的忧患都写了进去

Qu Yuan wrote down all his worries about Chu

 

路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索

The journey is long, and I will not stop pursuing it

 

长叹息以掩涕兮,哀民生之多艰

Long sigh to hide tears,Sighing for people difficult livelihood

……

 

楚国和其他诸侯国断交后

After Chu cut off relations with other states

 

秦国却只给楚国六里地

Qin only gave off 6 miles land to Chu

 

怀王大怒

The King Huai was very angry

 

他派兵攻打秦国结果大败

He sent troops to attack Qin and finally lost

 

此时怀王有些醒悟

At that time the King Huai woke up to reality

 

他派屈原去修复和其他诸侯国关系

He sent Qu Yuan to restore relations with other states

 

正当屈原出使齐国时

When Qu Yuan made his mission to Qi state

 

在子兰劝说下怀王又放弃六国联盟再次和秦国结盟

Under Zi Lan’s persuasion, King Huai abandoned the six-states alliance again and allied  with Qin

 

并将屈原流放

And exiled Qu Yuan

 

不久秦国背弃盟约攻打楚国

Not long after Qin breached of covenant and attacked Chu

 

并在武关挟持怀王为人质

And held the King Huai as hostage in Wuguan

 

子兰,郑袖等人拥立顷襄王继位

Zi Lan,Zheng Xiu and others supported the King Xiang succeeded to the throne

 

三年后怀王死在秦国

Three years later, the King Huai died in Qin state

 

公元前293年秦国向楚国宣战

In 293 BC, Qin declared war on Chu

 

顷襄王惧怕秦国准备投降

The King Xiang was frightened of Qin and ready to surrender

 

屈原上书反对

Qu Yuan sent post to object

 

在子兰等人挑唆下屈原被流放到更加偏远的南方而且永不得录用

Under Zi Lan’s instigation, Qu Yuan was exiled to a more remote south and wont be hired forever

 

公元前278年秦国攻破楚国都城

In 278 BC ,Qin conquered the capital of Chu

 

农历五月初五,心灰意冷的屈原来到汨罗江边

On the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, Qu Yuan was frustrated and came to the Miluo River

 

举世皆浊我独清,众人皆醉我独醒

The whole world is muddy I alone clear, all drunk I wake up alone

 

满怀亡国的忧愤,屈原投江身亡

Full of grief that state subjugated ,Qu Yuan threw himself into the river

 

屈原投江后人们沿着江边四处寻找他

People searched the river for Qu Yuan after he threw himself

 

人们担心屈原没有东西吃 ,就往江里丢竹叶包裹的饭团

People worried that Qu Yuan had nothing to eat ,they threw bamboo-leaf rice balls into the river

又划龙舟吓退鱼虾 ,让它们不要吃掉屈原的身体

They rowed the dragon boats to scare off the fish and shrimp that them cant eat qu Yuan’s body

 

这就是端午节习俗的由来

This is the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival custom

 

 

 

知识点

 

  1. Qū Yuán  屈原

中国浪漫主义文学的奠基人,《楚辞》的创立者和代表作者。

The founder of Chinese Romantic Literature, the founder and representative author of <Chu Ci >

 

  1. Lù màn man qí xiū yuǎn xī ,wú jiāng shàng xià ér qiú suǒ

路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索

这是一句流传几千年的名句,意思是(在追寻真理方面)前面的道路啊又远又长,我将( 不遗余力地)上上下下追求探索。

It’s a famous sentence for thousands of years,it means(In pursuit of truth)The road ahead is far and long,I will ( try my best) not stop pursuing it

 

  1. Qīng  清  clear

Zhuó  浊  muddy; turbid

Jǚ shì jiē zhuó wǒ dú qīng  举世皆浊我独清

天下都是浑浊不堪只有我清澈透明The whole world is muddy I alone clear

 

Cāng làng zhī shuǐ qīng xī kě yǐ zhuó wǔ yīng;Cāng làng zhī shuǐ zhuó xī kě yǐ zhuó wú zú ;沧浪之水清兮可以濯吾缨,沧浪之水浊兮可以濯吾足

 

意思是沧浪的水清,可以洗我的帽缨;沧浪的水浊,可以洗我的脚。

It means that if the river water is clear, and I can wash my hat tassel; if it is turbid, and I can wash my feet.

 

  1. nóng lì  农历 the traditional Chinese calendar

农历是中国的传统历法,是农业上一种最常用的精准计算可利用时间段的方法,对传统农业生产有很大帮助。

Lunar calendar is the traditional Chinese calendar.It is the most commonly used in agriculture accurate calculation of available time period method, which is of great help to traditional agricultural production.

 

  1. Jié qì  节气 China’s solar terms

 

中国的节气可以看做农作物生产的时间表,比如‘谷雨’意思是雨生百谷,雨量充足而及时,谷类作物能茁壮成长。‘小满’的意思是麦类等夏熟作物籽粒开始饱满。

 

China’s solar terms can be seen as a timetable for crop production, for example ,”谷雨Grain Rain “means that rain is abundant and timely, and cereals can thrive. “小满Lesser Fullness of Grain” means that the grains of wheat and other summer crops begin to be full.

 

  1. Duān wǔ jié  端午节 the Dragon Boat Festival

 

端午节为每年农历五月初五, 端午节的习俗有吃粽子、赛龙舟等。

Dragon Boat Festival is the fifth day of the fifth lunar month. The custom of Dragon Boat Festival is to eat zongzi and race dragon boats etc. .

 

 

 

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资深汉语教师,十年汉语教学经验

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